Around 190 million years ago, Gondwana and Laurasia split apart due to the widening of the Atlantic Ocean. In some Turkic languages, the originally Persian name Frangistan ("land of the Franks") is used casually in referring to much of Europe, besides official names such as Avrupa or Evropa. Romance languages are spoken primarily in Western and Southern Europe, as well as in Switzerland in Central Europe and Romania and Moldova in Eastern Europe. The Treaty of Versailles, which officially ended World War I in 1919, was harsh towards Germany, upon whom it placed full responsibility for the war and imposed heavy sanctions. The United States and Western Europe [46] Other hominin remains, dating back roughly 1 million years, have been discovered in Atapuerca, Spain. Four years later, in 1725, Philip Johan von Strahlenberg was the first to depart from the classical Don boundary by proposing that mountain ranges could be included as boundaries between continents whenever there were deemed to be no suitable waterways, the Ob and Irtysh Rivers notwithstanding. [138] From the Union of Krewo (1385) east-central Europe was dominated by the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The Romanians and the Turkic Nomads North of the Danube Delta from the Tenth to the Mid-Thirteenth Century, Brill, 2009. This extended lowland is known as the Great European Plain, and at its heart lies the North German Plain. One view is that her name derives from the ancient Greek elements εὐρύς (eurús), "wide, broad" and ὤψ (ōps, gen. ὠπός, ōpós) "eye, face, countenance", hence their composite Eurṓpē would mean "wide-gazing" or "broad of aspect". "[115], The Age of Enlightenment was a powerful intellectual movement during the 18th century promoting scientific and reason-based thoughts. The Battle of Kursk, which involved the largest tank battle in history, was the last major German offensive on the Eastern Front. [28] Herodotus mentioned that the world had been divided by unknown persons into three parts, Europe, Asia, and Libya (Africa), with the Nile and the Phasis forming their boundaries—though he also states that some considered the River Don, rather than the Phasis, as the boundary between Europe and Asia. Prior to the adoption of the current convention that includes mountain divides, the border between Europe and Asia had been redefined several times since its first conception in classical antiquity, but always as a series of rivers, seas, and straits that were believed to extend an unknown distance east and north from the Mediterranean Sea without the inclusion of any mountain ranges. [75] Between 711 and 720, most of the lands of the Visigothic Kingdom of Iberia was brought under Muslim rule — save for small areas in the northwest (Asturias) and largely Basque regions in the Pyrenees. 2009. With the fall of communism in Central and Eastern Europe in 1991, the post-socialist states began free market reforms. [143] According to Peter Barrett, "It is widely accepted that 'modern science' arose in the Europe of the 17th century (towards the end of the Renaissance), introducing a new understanding of the natural world. Sea creatures are also an important part of European flora and fauna. Other religions, including Judaism, Hinduism, and Buddhism are minority religions (though Tibetan Buddhism is the majority religion of Russia's Republic of Kalmykia). Thomas E. Woods and Antonio Canizares, 2012, "How the Catholic Church Built Western Civilization," Reprint edn., Washington, DC: Regnery History, single federation encompassing much of the continent, Boundaries between the continents of Earth, states which straddle the border between Europe and Asia, England tried unsuccessfully to invade Spain, German-speakers from all over Eastern Europe, List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Europe, Area and population of European countries, Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia, List of sovereign states in Europe by GDP (nominal), List of sovereign states in Europe by GDP (PPP), Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities, European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, List of sovereign states by date of formation, Names of European cities in different languages, List of European cities by population within city limits, Largest urban areas of the European Union, Financial and social rankings of European countries, List of European countries by GDP (nominal), United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, "The European union—a federation or a confederation? [113] During this period, more than 100 plague epidemics swept across Europe. European ancestry predominates in North America, and to a lesser degree in South America (particularly in Uruguay, Argentina, Chile and Brazil, while most of the other Latin American countries also have a considerable population of European origins). Ancient Greece was the founding culture of Western civilisation. Die Mittel für Bulgarien und Rumänien wurden ab 2004 schrittweise erhöht, so dass die EU in den Jahren 2004 etwa 1,2 Mrd. The most important species in central and western Europe are beech and oak. Svalbard is also included due to its unique status within Norway, although it is not autonomous. Few corners of mainland Europe have not been grazed by livestock at some point in time, and the cutting down of the pre-agricultural forest habitat caused disruption to the original plant and animal ecosystems. The Berlin blockade in 1948 and 1949 and the construction of the Berlin Wall in 1961 were one of the great international crises of the Cold War. [118][119][120] Patrons in Italy, including the Medici family of Florentine bankers and the Popes in Rome, funded prolific quattrocento and cinquecento artists such as Raphael, Michelangelo, and Leonardo da Vinci. Michael Gehler "Der alte und der neue Kalte Krieg in Europa" In: Die Presse 19.11.2015. The yearly average temperature in city of Inverness is 9.05 °C (48.29 °F). harvnb error: no target: CITEREFLewisWigen1997 (. World War I was fought between 1914 and 1918. Ferdinand Magellan reached Asia westward across the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans in the Spanish expedition of Magellan-Elcano, resulting in the first circumnavigation of the globe, completed by Juan Sebastián Elcano (1519–1522). However, his idea to use major rivers almost exclusively as the line of demarcation was never taken up by other geographers. As a result, the Reconquista took the greater part of eight hundred years, in which period a long list of Alfonsos, Sanchos, Ordoños, Ramiros, Fernandos and Bermudos would be fighting their Christian rivals as much as the Muslim invaders. A century ago, Europe had nearly a quarter of the world's population. An East-West Schism in 1054 split the former Roman Empire religiously, with the Eastern Orthodox Church in the Byzantine Empire and the Roman Catholic Church in the former Western Roman Empire. The Church in fact built Western civilization. [74] Over the next centuries Muslim forces took Cyprus, Malta, Crete, Sicily and parts of southern Italy. [245] It impacted much of the region. In 2017, the population of Europe was estimated to be 742 million according to the 2019 revision of the World Population Prospects[2][3], which is slightly more than one-ninth of the world's population. The question was still treated as a "controversy" in geographical literature of the 1860s, with Douglas Freshfield advocating the Caucasus crest boundary as the "best possible", citing support from various "modern geographers".[41]. Southern Europe could be described as having a warm, but mild climate. However, in many cases monoculture plantations of conifers have replaced the original mixed natural forest, because these grow quicker. [72], While the Roman empire in the west continued to decline, Roman traditions and the Roman state remained strong in the predominantly Greek-speaking Eastern Roman Empire, also known as the Byzantine Empire. Niewyk, Donald L. and Nicosia, Francis R. Jessica Caus "Am Checkpoint Charlie lebt der Kalte Krieg" In: Die Welt 4 August 2015. [235] From Britain, it gradually spread throughout Europe. Καὶ τῇ Εὐρώπῃ δὲ συνάπτει διὰ τοῦ μεταξὺ αὐχένος τῆς τε Μαιώτιδος λίμνης καὶ τοῦ Σαρματικοῦ Ὠκεανοῦ ἐπὶ τῆς διαβάσεως τοῦ Τανάϊδος ποταμοῦ. [115][116][117] The Renaissance spread across Europe between the 14th and 16th centuries: it saw the flowering of art, philosophy, music, and the sciences, under the joint patronage of royalty, the nobility, the Roman Catholic Church, and an emerging merchant class. This accounted for almost 85% of Europe's total population growth. However, no coordinated attempt would be made to drive the Moors out. Spain and Portugal, the greatest naval powers of the time, took the lead in exploring the world. Other countries might be seen by financial markets as being at risk of leaving. Greece was followed by Rome, which left its mark on law, politics, language, engineering, architecture, government and many more key aspects in western civilisation. [77] Charlemagne, a Frankish king of the Carolingian dynasty who had conquered most of Western Europe, was anointed "Holy Roman Emperor" by the Pope in 800. This led in 962 to the founding of the Holy Roman Empire, which eventually became centred in the German principalities of central Europe. Dornbusch, Rudiger; Nölling, Wilhelm P.; Layard, Richard G. "Germany (East)", Library of Congress Country Study. Michael A. Barry finds the mention of the word Ereb on an Assyrian stele with the meaning of "night, [the country of] sunset", in opposition to Asu "[the country of] sunrise", i.e. The exception is Benedict of Nursia, who had already been declared "Patron Saint of all Europe" by Pope Paul VI in 1964. But maps produced during the 16th to 18th centuries tended to differ in how to continue the boundary beyond the Don bend at Kalach-na-Donu (where it is closest to the Volga, now joined with it by the Volga–Don Canal), into territory not described in any detail by the ancient geographers. [148][149] Napoleonic rule resulted in the further dissemination of the ideals of the French Revolution, including that of the nation-state, as well as the widespread adoption of the French models of administration, law, and education. The Neanderthals were supplanted by modern humans (Cro-Magnons), who appeared in Europe around 43,000 to 40,000 years ago. In Western Europe the Neolithic period was characterised not by large agricultural settlements but by field monuments, such as causewayed enclosures, burial mounds and megalithic tombs. The unsuccessful second siege of Constantinople (717) weakened the Umayyad dynasty and reduced their prestige. The current division of Eurasia into two continents now reflects East-West cultural, linguistic and ethnic differences which vary on a spectrum rather than with a sharp dividing line. The political map of Europe is substantially derived from the re-organisation of Europe following the Napoleonic Wars in 1815. Europe is taken to be bounded by large bodies of water to the north, west and south; Europe's limits to the east and northeast are usually taken to be the Ural Mountains, the Ural River, and the Caspian Sea; to the southeast, the Caucasus Mountains, the Black Sea and the waterways connecting the Black Sea to the Mediterranean Sea. By August, Germany began a bombing offensive on Britain, but failed to convince the Britons to give up. Europe is commonly considered to be separated from Asia by the watershed of the Ural Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian Sea, the Greater Caucasus, the Black Sea, and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the schism was eventually healed in 1417, the papacy's spiritual authority had suffered greatly. Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast. 2002. In May 1940, Germany attacked France through the Low Countries. ... • Größere Auswahl und stabilere Preise für Verbraucher • Engere wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit zwischen EU-Ländern Der Euro wird im gesamten Euroraum verwendet. However, Churchill, Manitoba, Canada, is on roughly the same latitude and has an average temperature of −6.5 °C (20.3 °F), giving it a nearly subarctic climate. Statistics Explained, your guide to European statistics. [12][13] The fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration Period marked the end of Europe's ancient history and the beginning of the Middle Ages. Jose Orlandis, 1993, "A Short History of the Catholic Church," 2nd edn. [144][145][146] Discontent with the aristocracy and clergy's monopoly on political power in France resulted in the French Revolution and the establishment of the First Republic as a result of which the monarchy and many of the nobility perished during the initial reign of terror. [126] France, the Netherlands and England soon followed in building large colonial empires with vast holdings in Africa, the Americas, and Asia. Australia and New Zealand have large European derived populations. (Michael Adams, Trans. Turkic languages include Azerbaijani, Kazakh and Turkish, in addition to smaller languages in Eastern and Southeast Europe (Balkan Gagauz Turkish, Bashkir, Chuvash, Crimean Tatar, Karachay-Balkar, Kumyk, Nogai, and Tatar). The climate is milder in comparison to other areas of the same latitude around the globe due to the influence of the Gulf Stream. As a name for a part of the known world, it is first used in the 6th century BC by Anaximander and Hecataeus. 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